Theoretical knowledge of teaching concept does not provide any guideline for classroom instructional procedure. Every teacher who intends to teach something has to prepare an outline of his subject or topic in written form or at his cognitive level that is known as lesson planning. A teacher has to apply his theoretical knowledge in planning and administrating his lesson plan. A practical outline of a topic to be taught in a period is called the lesson plan. It is designed during the student teaching or teaching practice.
Origin of Lesson Plan
Lesson plan has originated from Gestalt psychology. The Gestalt theory of learning has a great influence on human learning. In the school the whole is perceived by a part. A unit plays an important role in learning. The learner usually takes help of the units in understanding and grasping the whole concept. The meaningful activities are related are related to one another within a unit. These activities provide the purposeful learning experiences and the learner understands the whole concept. This theory originates the concept of “Unit Plan”.
The unit plan is based on two streams of thoughts: Herbart propounds the first approach. He stresses on the content and information in a unit plan. John Dewy and Klippatrik give the second approach. They have emphasized on the experiences of learners in a unit plan rather than information.
B.F.Skinner has provided a recent approach to a unit plan. The focus of his unit plan is the modification of behaviour. His major assumption about learning is that the student learns better if the content is provided in small units. The unit-plan is the crucial aspect of a lesson plan.
Meaning and Definition
Teaching is organized in three phases: pre-active, interactive and post-active. All the activities of a teacher and his planning done prior of the timings of his class are called pre-active. Lesson planning is the pre-active phase of teaching.
N.L.Bossing has given a comprehensive definition of lesson plan. “Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of the achievement to be realized and the specific meaning by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged during the period.”
Binning and Bining have explained the structure and purpose of lesson planning in their definition. “All lesson planning involves defining the objectives, selecting and arranging the subject-matter and determining the method and procedure.”
I.K.Davies has given four steps for management of learning, planning, organizing, leading and controlling. He has also given the greater importance of lesson planning in the first step of planning of teaching. He has defined in the following manner. “Lessons must be prepared for there is nothing so fatal to a teacher’s progress than un-preparedness.
Ryburn considers that a teacher gains experience about his classroom work, through lesson planning so that he is able to perform his tasks successfully in his teaching . He has defined the concept in brief. “To teach we must use experience already gained as starting point of our work. “
We can also take a look at James Michael Lee’s definition of lesson plan. He says, ” A lesson plan is an organized statement of general and specific educational goals together with the specific means by which these goals are to attained by the learners under the guidance of the teacher on a given day.”